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Soon after this, Menelik and the king of Italy signed the Treaty of Addis Ababa, recognizing Italian claims on Eritrea up to the Mereb River.

A year later, Italy moved Eritrea’s capital to Asmara.

On 1st January 1890, the Italian King proclaimed the colony of Eritrea, with the port of Massawa as its capital.

Italy’s attempts to drive south into Abyssinia were repelled by the Amhara King Menelik II at the 1896 Battle of Adua.

The Ottoman Turks (15th -19th centuries): The Ottomans arrived on the Eritrean coast at the start of the 16th century, carving out an enclave from the realm of the Bahre Negash.Rock paintings have been found in several sites dating from 2000 BC.So far, fifty- one prehistoric sites have been identified across Eritrea, from Karora in the north to Beylul in the southeast, but many more are expected to be explored in the coming years.The Axumite Empire (1st -9th century AD): The Axumite Empire, centered in the Eritrean highlands and what is now northern Ethiopia, flourished for nearly a thousand years.At its height in the 3rd and 4th centuries, Axum’s domains stretched across the Red Sea to include much of modern Yemen.

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