During the early years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts such as paintings, sculpture and architecture.
This was done as both a process of modernization and of creating a cultural identity.
Of the two, the Ottoman Divan poetry, a highly ritualized and symbolic art form, was the dominant stream.
The vast majority of Divan poetry was lyric in nature: either ghazals or qasidas.
The Book of Dede Korkut and the Epic of Köroğlu have been the main elements of the Turkish epic tradition in Anatolia for several centuries.
The two primary streams of Ottoman literature were poetry and prose.
Many of these traditions were initially brought together by the Ottoman Empire, a multi-ethnic and multi-religious state.Today, Turkey may be the only country that contains every extreme of Eastern and Western culture (along with many compromises and fusions between the two).The Ottoman system was a multi-ethnic state that enabled people within it not to mix with each other and thereby retain separate ethnic and religious identities within the empire (albeit with a dominant Turkish and Southern European ruling class).Examples of prevalent symbols that, to some extent, oppose one another include, among others: the nightingale (بلبل bülbül) — the rose (ﮔل gül) the world (جهان cihan; عالم 'âlem) — the rosegarden (ﮔﻠﺴﺘﺎن gülistan; ﮔﻠﺸﻦ gülşen) the ascetic (زاهد zâhid) — the dervish (درويش derviş) In the early years of the Republic of Turkey, there were a number of poetic trends.Authors such as Ahmed Hâşim and Yahyâ Kemâl Beyatlı (1884–1958) continued to write important formal verse whose language was, to a great extent, a continuation of the late Ottoman tradition.