After the elections, a military crackdown was followed by an accommodative policy in which the FRUD was persuaded to join mainstream politics and abandon violence. Djibouti's identity as a nation is a compromise between the political and social aspirations of two communities that have created a social contract within the context of the state that allows them to maintain their independence.
The wealth brought by Djibouti's seaports unite the inhabitants, who share the idea of being an island of relative stability in a volatile region.More than half the population lives in Djibouti City. The main indigenous languages are Afar and Issa-Somali, both of which belong to the Cushitic language group.The official national languages are French, which is used in education and administration, and Arabic, which is spoken by Yemeni and other Arab immigrants. The coat of arms shows two bent olive branches within which a traditional round shield is pictured over a vertical Somali spear topped with a red star and flanked by two Afar daggers to the left and right.There is also tension between the settled population and newcomers (Gadabursi, Isaak, and refugees), which occasionally turns into open conflict. The indigenous architecture of earlier centuries is found in the capitals of the sultanates of Raheita and Tadjoura, with their old mosques and town centers.Djibouti City was designed by French town planners with a grid street plan and government institutions placed close to each other in the center.