Furthermore, to ensure policy coherence, programme complementarity and coordination in implementing external assistance programmes, Europe Aid was established in 2001 managing EU external aid programmes worldwide (Europe Aid 2008).With the global support for liberalisation and decentralisation, the role of the state was changing.A call was made for result-driven aid through the harmonisation, alignment and management of development programmes within a clear set of monitorable actions and indicators and for transfering the ownership of development strategies to the countries and populations for which development was supposed to work (OECD 2005).Civil Society as a Practical and Political Solution Civil society came to play a major role in the global response to these criticisms and events at both policy and implementation level.The article presents findings from a research project which explored how experiences of higher education supported – or not – the emergence of developmental leadership and the formation of networks among leaders of three political and social movements in the Philippines in the post-Marcos era.Based on life history interviews with key leaders, the study points to the importance of different forms of social capital, especially bridging capital, in navigating a stratified system within this oligarchical democracy.Grassroots participation became celebrated as a major source of social and political change (Willets 2008) and as a valuable instrument able to smooth democratisation processes in the developing world (IDS 2008).The promotion of civil society has become a fundamental principle of EU’s development policy.
The 1980s and 1990s saw an increasing number of civil society organisations question the ruling authoritarian regimes in their countries.
But the liberalisation and globalisation agenda did not come without challenges and in the ‘90s reality and the media increasingly showed that the world had become divided between the affluent and those living in ‘dehumanizing poverty, servitude and economic insecurity’ (Korten in Allen and Thomas 20).
Criticism of the top-down and predominantly Western economic agenda of development gained foothold as witnessed by the public demonstrations in 1999 during the World Trade Organisation round in Seattle.
Global citizens and media were increasingly putting both donors as well as development agencies under scrutiny (Cardone 2008-b).
The lack of coherence between donors, the competition between agencies, the persistence of corruption, and the lack of involvement of developing nations’ citizens to hold those accountable that act in its interest brought the objectives of ‘Aid Effectiveness’, ‘Good Governance’, and ‘Local Ownership’ to the forefront.